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In this vein, Sweden has advanced as a global leader in prioritizing gender equality in its development assistance.
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We Are the U. It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.
On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.
Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.
The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.
Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget.
Since Sweden has been a member of the European Union, and as a consequence of a new world security situation the country's foreign policy doctrine has been partly modified, with Sweden playing a more active role in European security co-operation.
The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionage , anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.
The Försvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces are a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden.
The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peacekeeping forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.
The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander Överbefälhavaren , ÖB , the most senior commissioned officer in the country.
Up to , the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood through the 20th century that the monarch would have no active role as a military leader.
Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.
Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely focusing on those otherwise most fit for service.
By law, all soldiers serving abroad must be volunteers. In , the total number of conscripts was 45, By , it was down to 15, On 1 July , Sweden ended routine conscription, switching to an all-volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.
The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, personnel. This in comparison with the s, before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, servicemembers.
However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system , refresher training.
The first recruits began their training in As the law is now gender neutral, both men and women may have to serve. Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.
Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.
Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.
Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden. Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.
In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0.
Danderyd , outside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0. In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.
In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.
Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. An estimated 4.
The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency. Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.
Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.
Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum.
According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.
Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.
Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened.
By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.
Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.
The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.
The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on 17 October Sweden had left-hand traffic Vänstertrafik in Swedish from approximately and continued to do so well into the 20th century.
Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.
The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.
The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.
Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. Most tram nets were closed in , as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving.
But they survived in Norrköping , Stockholm and Gothenburg, with Gothenburg tram network being the largest. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.
Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.
Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.
Finally, there are ferries from Strömstad near the Norwegian border to destinations around the Oslofjord in Norway.
There used to be ferry services to the United Kingdom from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.
Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either Oskarshamn or Nynäshamn.
Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world.
A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.
However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.
Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation ,   compared to countries such as France.
Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.
This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.
Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.
In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.
However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.
Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.
Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: the average worker loses 24 days due to sickness.
The unemployment rate was 7. In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.
Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.
Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.
Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.
Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec , an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.
A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.
Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.
As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.
As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development. The European Spallation Source, costing some SEK 14 billion to construct,  will begin initial operations in with construction completion scheduled for The ESS will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.
Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions.
People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension. There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions.
A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, in March The population density is The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.
Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund.
The Öresund Region , the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million.
Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.
The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish,   a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.
Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians. The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish.
The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.
However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli , Sami , Romani , and Yiddish.
Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July , when a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.
English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.
Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.
Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.
With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.
After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petri , the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.
Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.
With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.
However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.
Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.
The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.
Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children and adults who are christened become members.
Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.
The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland.
Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey.
Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , .
Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.
Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.
It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option.
The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.
Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish : förskola or, colloquially, dagis.
Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. The school system is largely financed by taxes.
The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally  by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.
Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get.
School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.
The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.
Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.
The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.
There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.
This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded.
In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.
Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland. The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: .
According to an official investigation by The Swedish Pensions Agency on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state's expenses for pensions to the population.
The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes.
Swedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.
More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson , Lasse Hallström , and Ruben Östlund have received international recognition. Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.
The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.
Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage ,  Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. As of , Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.
Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites.
The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene.
There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality. Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition.
Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.
During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.
Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.
As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalby , but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.
Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.
In the foundations of the Linköping Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone , but the building took some years to finish.
Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Borgholm Castle , Halltorps Manor and Eketorp fortress on the island Öland, the Nyköping fortress and the Visby city wall.
Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.
In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.
The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.
The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth, Shaped like a large white ball, and took two and a half years to build.
It's located in Stockholm. Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper.
The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter liberal , Göteborgs-Posten liberal , Svenska Dagbladet liberal conservative and Sydsvenska Dagbladet liberal.
The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden.
The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local liberal. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.
Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.
Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.
The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.
TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.
Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök runestone , carved during the Viking Age c.
With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.
Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.
Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.
The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, Nobel laureate , Verner von Heidenstam Nobel laureate and Pär Lagerkvist Nobel laureate In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.
The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking , Emil , and others.
In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.
They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice ; Walpurgis Night Valborgsmässoafton on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations.
The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.
Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor crayfish dinner parties.
The Sami , one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.
Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.
Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.
The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming a fermented fish in northern Sweden and eel in Scania in southern Sweden.
Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, are still an important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.
In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva , Swedes eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill.
Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.
These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey.
Second to football, horse sports of which most of the participants are women have the highest number of practitioners.
Thereafter, golf , orienteering , gymnastics , track and field , and the team sports of ice hockey , handball , floorball , basketball and bandy are the most popular in terms of practitioners.
The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor English: Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.
The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.
The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as Carolina Klüft and Stefan Holm.
Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation.
Country on the Scandinavian peninsula. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Finnish Meänkieli Sami Romani Yiddish. Swedish Swede. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
Main article: Name of Sweden. Main article: History of Sweden. Main article: Prehistoric Sweden. See also: History of Sweden —present.
Main article: Geography of Sweden. See also: Wildlife of Sweden. Main article: Politics of Sweden. Main articles: List of political parties in Sweden and Elections in Sweden.
Main articles: Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Main article: Judiciary of Sweden. Main article: Foreign relations of Sweden.
Main article: Economy of Sweden. Main article: Transport in Sweden. See also: Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden.
Main article: Swedish inventions. Main article: Taxation in Sweden. Main article: Social security in Sweden.
Main articles: Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ". Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 11 July Main articles: Swedish language and Languages of Sweden.
See also: Swedish dialects. Main article: Religion in Sweden. Main article: Education in Sweden. Main article: Immigration to Sweden.
Main article: Crime in Sweden. Further information: Bombings in Sweden and Rape in Sweden. Main article: Culture of Sweden.
Main article: Music of Sweden. Main article: Architecture of Sweden. Main article: Media in Sweden. Main article: Swedish literature.
Main article: Public holidays in Sweden. Main article: Swedish cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Sweden.
Main article: Sport in Sweden. Sweden portal. Royal Court of Sweden. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 22 December The Riksdag.
Retrieved 24 October Church of Sweden Svenska kyrkan. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
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Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 3 July United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 10 November The Local.
Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 15 July Swedish Language Council. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Statistics Sweden.
Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.
As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.
This is not, however, to be confused with migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 2 September Retrieved 1 September Archived from the original on 9 October The Washington Times.
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September Subscription or UK public library membership required. Svensk etymologisk ordbok [ Swedish etymological dictionary ] in Swedish.
Lund: Gleerup. Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 30 August A History of the Vikings. Oxford University Press, Page Medieval Scandinavia: from Conversion to Reformation, Circa — University of Minnesota Press.
In McKitterick, Rosamond ed. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. Swedish expansion in Finland led to conflicts with Rus', which were temporarily brought to an end by a peace treaty in , dividing the Karelian peninsula and the northern areas between the two countries.
När kom svenskarna till Finland? Helsinki: Studier utg. Om svenskarnes inflyttningar till Finland. Finlands svenska historia 1. Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland; Stockholm: Atlantis.
Sweden: The Nation's History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Nordisk familjebok: konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi.
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Archived from the original on 26 December Finding the family in medieval and early modern Scotland. Ashgate Publishing. Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 1 July The Last Plague in the Baltic Region.
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Norges historie in Norwegian. University of Oslo. Retrieved 9 December The Local Europe AB. Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples.
Praeger Publishers. Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor.
Only the safety valve of mass emigration to America prevented famine and rebellion. Sweden's Development From Poverty to Affluence, — In economic and social terms the eighteenth century was more a transitional than a revolutionary period.
Sweden was, in light of contemporary Western European standards, a relatively poor but stable country. Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 19 February Throughout Swedish history the countryside has taken an unusually important role in comparison with other European states.
Conspectus of History. Although effective in preserving the country's sovereignty, this approach generated criticism at home from many who believed the threat to Sweden was less serious than the government claimed, problems with the warring powers, ill feelings among its neighbours, and frequent criticism in the postwar period.
Med förintelsen i bagaget in Swedish. Stockholm: Bonnier Carlsen. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 28 August By Sven Steinmo.
Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 18 July Although many were present before, the and global oil crises acted as catalysts in bringing them to the fore.
Swedish Historical National Accounts, — Lund: Almqvist and Wiksell International. Korpi TBD. Meidner, R. Olsen, Gregg M.
The Swedish welfare state in transition. Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 3 August Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Archived from the original on 8 July The New York Times. Archived from the original on 31 May Retrieved 1 June BBC News.
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Bibcode : MWRv Archived from the original on 25 February Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 17 November Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 27 June Archived PDF from the original on 15 January Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 4 March Archived PDF from the original on 3 March Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 11 October Under talets första hälft planterades stora arealer granskog.
During the first half of the twentieth century, large areas of pine forest were planted. According to the 'edible deciduous forests law', after ever harvesting, new deciduous forests must always be planted on such fields.
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International Monetary Fund. Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 14 October United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 23 March Swedish Language Council. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.
As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.
This is not, however, to be confused with migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. Statistics Sweden website.
Retrieved 27 July Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Countries and territories of Europe. Territory or with territory geographically part of North America 3.
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Organization Chart. Retrieved November 30, Microhabitats and succession". Nova Hedwigia. Retrieved November 25, Geografiska Annaler.
May 15, Statistics Sweden. Sweden Offroad Tour. Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on Kataja - Sveriges östligaste skär.
Västkustrapsodi in Swedish. Eniro in Swedish. Archived from the original on May 3, Retrieved Mar 3, Google Earth makes use of the WGS84 geodetic reference system.
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Ranked 55th. Temperate to subarctic. Flat lowlands , mountains. Iron , copper , lead , zinc , gold , silver , tungsten , uranium , arsenic , feldspar , timber , hydropower.
Acid rains , eutrophication. Average max. Precipitation totals in mm. Source: Climatedata. Imperial conversion J.
Precipitation totals in inches.